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Gaeng Khiao Waan Gai (Thai Green Curry with Chicken)

Bright, spicy, and savory Thai green curry.

Gaeng khiao waan gai, or green curry with chicken, is one of the most well-known and popular Thai curries in the world. A rich coconut milk-based curry, part of its crowd-pleasing nature is its balance: it’s spicy, but not too spicy; it’s sweet, but not too sweet; and the richness of the coconut milk pairs well with the relative leanness of chicken meat. The curry takes its name from the green chiles used to make prik gaeng khiao waan, the curry paste that forms its base, which also contains fresh aromatics, like lemongrass, galangal, garlic, and shallots, along with dried spices and shrimp paste. (The curry paste is fundamentally identical to the red curry paste, prik gaeng phet, used to make red curry, or gaeng phet, aside from the fact that it uses green chiles instead of dried red chiles.)

Like many Thai dishes, there’s a lot of speculation about its origins. Hanuman Aspler, a scholar of Thai food and one of my mentors, has noted that green curry is a relatively new addition to Thai cuisine, one that likely originated in the kitchens of the Thai aristocracy sometime during the 1920s. In his examination of historic Thai cookbooks, Aspler found few if any mentions of green curry, just red curry. And although there’s no definite answer as to why green chiles came to be used in place of red chiles to make green curry paste, there is speculation that the substitution came about due to the influence of Indian-style curries.

However, there’s a lot of debate in both historical and current cookbooks, as well as in many articles, about how green curry should be seasoned. Many people look at the curry’s name and believe the curry should be quite sweet, which they accomplish by adding a lot of sugar, and quite green, which they accomplish by blending things like cilantro leaves and spinach leaves into the curry paste, as “khiao” means green and “waan” means sweet. But, as Hanuman explains, “khiao waan” is based instead on the words “aawn waan,” which means a pastel green color—it has nothing to do with sweetness—and since this curry is essentially a gaeng phet (red curry), its flavor profile should follow suit: it should be assertively savory and spicy thanks to the curry paste and a generous splash of fish sauce, with just a hint of background sweetness coming from palm sugar and coconut milk.


  • 1 1/2 cups (355ml) full-fat coconut milk, such as Aroy-D, divided (see note)
  • 10 fresh or frozen makrut lime leaves, divided
  • 2 tablespoons (30ml) virgin coconut oil
  • 4 ounces (1/2 cup; 115g) homemade or store-bought green curry paste
  • 1 tablespoon plus 2 teaspoons (35g) palm sugar
  • 3 tablespoons (45ml) fish sauce
  • 1 pound (450g) boneless skinless chicken thighs, cut into 2-inch pieces
  • Kosher salt
  • 5 Thai eggplants (about 5 1/4 ounces; 150g total), stemmed, quartered, and placed in a small bowl of water (see note)
  • 1 packed cup (about 1 ounce; 30g) fresh sweet basil leaves (a.k.a. Thai basil)
  • Cooked jasmine rice, for serving


  1. In a small bowl, whisk together 1/2 cup (120ml) coconut milk and 1/2 cup (120ml) water; set thinned coconut milk mixture aside. Remove and discard the mid-rib from the makrut lime leaves; set 8 of the leaves aside. Stack remaining 2 makrut lime leaves, fold in half widthwise, then slice into hair-thin strips; set aside separately.

    collage: coconut milk and water whisked together; makrut lime leaves in various stages of prep on a cutting board
  2. In a 3-quart saucepan, combine coconut oil with 1/2 cup (120ml) coconut milk and bring to a simmer over medium heat. Cook, stirring often with a rubber spatula, until thickened slightly, about 1 minute.

    coconut milk added to skillet, beginning to thicken and being stirred with a rubber spatula
  3. Add curry paste, stir vigorously to combine, and use rubber spatula to scrape sides of the saucepan to fully incorporate paste. Raise heat to medium-high and cook, stirring and scraping constantly until paste mixture begins to spit (which indicates that water content has been cooked off, and mixture has begun to fry in coconut oil), about 1 minute. Lower heat back to medium, and continue to cook while gradually adding remaining 1/2 cup (120ml) coconut milk in 2-tablespoon (30ml) increments, until paste darkens slightly and the fat begins to separate from curry paste, 5 to 6 minutes.

    collage of stages of making green curry: adding green curry paste to coconut milk; stirring with rubber spatula; mixture beginning to break; coconut milk being added in increments; mixture breaking more, fat separating; close up of fat separating out of mixture
  4. Add fish sauce and palm sugar, and stir until palm sugar is fully dissolved, about 30 seconds. Lightly season chicken on all sides with salt, add to saucepan with reserved whole makrut lime leaves, and stir to evenly coat with curry paste mixture. Add reserved thinned coconut milk mixture and bring to a simmer. Cook, stirring occasionally, until chicken is cooked through and tender and liquid has thickened slightly, about 10 minutes.

    collage: palm sugar and fish sauce added; chicken and makrut lime leaves added; thinned coconut milk mixture added; curry simmering on stove
  5. Add eggplants, and continue to cook, adjusting heat as needed to maintain a simmer, until eggplants are just cooked through but still have some bite to them, about 3 minutes. Remove from heat, add sweet basil, and stir until wilted and incorporated.

    collage: eggplants added; thai basil added
  6. Transfer curry to a large serving bowl or divide between individual bowls, and garnish with reserved thinly-sliced makrut lime leaves. Serve with cooked jasmine rice.

    close up of Gaeng Khiao Waan Gai (Thai Green Curry with Chicken) in a serving bowl


Special equipment

3-quart saucepan


Thai apple eggplants, often labeled simply as “Thai eggplant,” can be found in Southeast Asian and Chinese markets, as well as online. While they differ greatly in flavor and texture, Japanese or globe eggplant can be substituted for this recipe (use an equal amount by weight); cut eggplants into 2-inch pieces and proceed with the recipe as written. Once cut open, the flesh of Thai apple eggplants will quickly oxidize, so once you’ve quartered them, it’s a good idea to place them in water until you’re ready to add them to the curry.

When purchasing coconut milk, look for versions like this one from Aroy-D that have “100% coconut milk” as the only listed ingredient, rather than those made with coconut extract and water. Makrut lime leaves can be found at Southeast Asian and South Asian markets. If you’re lucky you will find them fresh, but it is more common to find them frozen (note that they are often sold under a different name that we avoid using, as it is a derogatory term in some contexts).

Palm sugar can be found in Thai markets, as well as some nationwide supermarket chains like HMart, and also online.

Make-ahead and Storage

The finished curry can be refrigerated in an airtight container for up to 3 days. Reheat gently on stovetop before serving. If you plan on making the curry a day in advance, hold off on adding the sweet basil leaves in Step 5; stir them in at the last minute when reheating the curry before serving.


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